Election 2020

Timeline

US presidents have telegraphed and tweeted to grab your attention. The technology behind political activism, the right to vote, presidential campaigns, and propaganda influences voters’ decisions generation after generation. The desire to influence you has not changed, but the tools to get your vote on election day have never been more persuasive.

Learn about the longstanding history of technology and media in elections and the questions they raise about America’s democratic values today.

2020

Americans gear up for a new presidential election, with Republican Donald Trump vs. Democratic Party candidate Joe Biden

America’s future is uncertain but technology continues to be at the center, influencing our choices and opinions. Questions about police violence, Russian election interference, and mail-in voting are raised during a worldwide coronavirus pandemic. In late summer, party conventions are televised from near empty sets, while social media channels blow up with partisan opinions to influence our votes.

Image: 2016 Republican National Convention, Quicken Loans Arena, Cleveland, Ohio. ABC/Ida Mae Astute via Walt Disney Television/Flickr (CC BY-ND-2.0)

2018

Mark Zuckerberg appears before the US Congress during the Facebook-Cambridge Analytica data breach

Whistleblower Christopher Wylie reported to the New York Times and the Guardian/Observer that British internet research firm Cambridge Analytica had purchased data on 50 million Facebook users to build a “psychological warfare tool,” promoting pro-Trump content during the 2016 presidential campaign. On April 10, 2018, Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg appeared before the US Congress to face questions about the breach, as well as Facebook’s policies on objectionable or untrue content.

Image: Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg testifying before the Senate Judiciary Committee, April 18, 2018. Image: PBS NewsHour

2017

@realDonoldTrump makes his first tweet as president on January 20, 2017

Starting his presidency with 20.6 million Twitter followers, Trump became the most active president on Twitter in history, using the channel to communicate throughout the day and night with the public. Trump joined Twitter as an individual in March 2009 and sent out his first tweet on May 4, 2009, advertising his upcoming appearance on The Late Show with David Letterman.

Image: Patrick Chappatte/International New York Times

2016

Hillary Clinton and Donald Trump face off in the most data-driven campaign in history

Clinton’s team employed data scientists who designed statistical models to guide campaign strategy, while Trump’s team relied heavily on social media and free advertising. The Trump campaign placed nearly 6,000,000 Facebook ads and variations, while Clinton’s team used only about 66,000. Social media allowed governments, campaigns, and sometimes individuals to quickly influence public opinion on a global scale.

Image: Hillary Clinton Facebook ad, 2016. Facebook/p2016.org

2008

Social media helps secure presidency victory for Barack Obama

Barack Obama won the election and became the first African-American president in US history. During the campaign, the Obama team blazed a path by masterfully using social media to mobilize the public online, including unprecedented crowdsourcing of financial support for the campaign. Social media like Twitter and Facebook became pivotal forums for political views and debate. Obama became the first tweeting president with the @POTUS44 twitter handle in 2015.

Image: President Obama’s first tweet from @POTUS44, May 18, 2015. POTUS44/Twitter

2002

Congress passes “Help America Vote Act” and declares touch screens the future of voting technology

In the wake of the 2000 election recount, Congress passed the “Help America Vote Act,” which mandated higher standards for voting equipment. The act prematurely promoted touch screen technology as the future of voting. But in the 2016 election, electronic voting machines in 21 states were targeted by Russian hackers. Some states scrapped expensive touch screen voting machines and switched back to paper based systems.

Image: WinVote voting machines, 2000, used touch screen technology. Later analysis showed they are easily hacked. Computer History Museum

2000

Florida vote recount settles in Bush’s favor

The George W. Bush vs. Al Gore presidential election results hung in the balance for weeks following election night. The margin of error was so close, the difference was being measured in the hundreds, out of millions of votes cast. Some poorly punched ballot cards by voters could not be read by vote counting machines so election workers resorted to counting holes and “hanging chads” on the punched cards to tally the election. The process took five weeks and only ended with a Supreme Court decision in favor of Bush.

Image: Man counts controversial Palm Beach County punched card ballot, 2000. State Library and Archives of Florida via Wikimedia Commons.

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Did you know? 

Each hole punched in a paper card or ballot produces a small paper fragment called a chad. Discover the difference between a “clean chad” and a “hanging chad” in CHM’s Election 2020 Discussion Guide for High School Students.

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1994

The First White House website is launched

The 1994 White House website publicizes Clinton and Gore’s strong support for the World Wide Web. Developed by Tim Berners-Lee and others at the European Laboratory for Particle Physics in 1990, the World Wide Web was becoming the dominant way to navigate the growing internet. Websites included major news outlets, and soon easy email sites like Hotmail.

Image: The first White House homepage (screenshot), 1994. National Archives

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Did you know?

Today election news is delivered personally to us via the internet on our device of choice. But in 1996, getting election news other than through traditional media was a novel idea.

Vote America: Your Field Guide to Electing a President, an interactive CD-ROM with a companion website, was released in 1996 to educate voters—and is now accessible via CHM’s collection.

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1992

Computer networks play major roles in a US presidential election

Bill Clinton and Al Gore extensively used email to reach voters, and the “Information Superhighway” was a key plank in their platform. Jerry Brown used Compuserve. Ross Perot coordinated his campaign with internet search engine and publishing tool WAIS. Prodigy, AOL, and Usenet all hosted information and lively debates.

Image: Al Gore, ca.1991. © Wally McNamee/Corbis

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Did you know?

CHM is decoding the intersection of technology, politics, elections, and democracy in our digital world. Discover related artifacts, oral histories, blogs, and CHM Live events from our collection.

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1980

Digitcomp DR-70 Astrology Computer is consulted by the Reagan White House.

Ronald Reagan is elected 40th president of the United States, winning a second term in 1984. A former governor of California as well as a film and television actor, Reagan was a natural on camera, arguably America’s first celebrity president. Less well known is the role astrology played in his presidency, a passion his wife Nancy frequently turned to for guidance. The Digitcomp DR-70 Astrology Computer was used by Nancy Reagan’s astrologer Joan Quigley to determine the timing of important events such as the take-off times of Air Force One, press conferences, and even the best dates for signing treaties.

Image: Digitcomp DR-70 Astrology Computer, 1981. Computer History Museum

1965

The Voting Rights Act is passed 

Television played a critical role in the civil rights movement. Americans were shocked to see the protests and police violence on TV in their own homes, helping to mobilize white Northerners to support the civil rights movement and effect change. Black voters continued to face barriers at polling stations with suppression tactics like voting taxes and literacy tests.

Image: Civil rights march from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, 1965. Image: Peter Pettus/Library of Congress via Flickr 

1964

“Daisy” TV ad changes election campaign tactics

The new medium of television and the time-honored politics of fear collided in the 1964 presidential election when US President Lyndon B. Johnson’s election campaign released “Daisy,” a television advertisement with a scary message: “vote for me or the world will end,” implying that his rival, Barry Goldwater, was an unpredictable maniac. “Daisy” is one of the most famous television political advertisements in history, credited with introducing emotion to political advertising, which until then had been fact-based. The ad aired on NBC’s Monday Night at the Movies on September 7, 1964. Watch it now!

Image: “Daisy” advertisement, 1964. Library of Congress.

1952

Television and UNIVAC make election debuts

The 1952 election campaign was the first in the US  to make use of television. Though Eisenhower appeared stiff and unflattering on-screen, his opponent Stevenson refused to appear on TV at all, finding it distasteful. While polls gave the election to Stevenson, CBS election coverage relied on UNIVAC, a new electronic computer, which predicted an Eisenhower landslide. UNIVAC was right. The computer’s TV debut captivated an audience already enthralled by new technology.

Image: John Presper Ekert Jr., Harold Sweeny, and Watler Cronkite (left to right) with UNIVAC, 1952. Computer History Museum.

1932

Franklin D. Roosevelt uses radio to reach the masses

Franklin D. Roosevelt skillfully used radio to win the 1932 presidential election, defeating Herbet Hoover in a landslide. Radio helped make Roosevelt into a national figure by presenting a man with a personable, competent, and hopeful message. The topics he spoke about ranged from the New Deal, drought, and unemployment to Europe’s battle with fascism and American military progress during World War II.  Roosevelt’s informal, conversational “fireside chats” were broadcast country-wide and kept a frightened nation informed and hopeful.

1924

Calvin Coolidge’s campaign speech is broadcast to largest radio audience ever

Radio played a big role in the 1924 presidential election, which was a three-way contest between Demoratic, Republican, and Progressive candidates. In December of 1923, Calvin Coolidge became the first president to address the American people on broadcast radio upon succeeding to the office after the sudden death of Warren G. Harding. The following year, Coolidge made history again when the largest radio audience ever tuned in to the broadcast of his final campaign speech. By the early 1930s, about 90 percent of Americans owned a radio. 

Image: Calvin Coolidge radio broadcast, ca. 1920s. Coolidge Foundation

1920

Women in the US win the right to vote, but Black women (like Black men) were largely kept from exercising it in Southern states

After decades of activism, the 1920 presidential election was the first in American history where women had the right to vote at the federal level. Their movement made use of newsreels and newspapers in local movie theaters to bring their cause to the public. Warren G. Harding’s support of universal suffrage and his ability to capture the votes of women, was a significant factor in his 1920 presidential election victory over Woodrow Wilson. However,  it would be decades before Black women and men could exercise the same right in many Southern states.

Image: Suffragettes at capitol: Mrs. [Russell] McLennan, Mrs. Aletha Taft, Louise Bridges, Mrs. [Richard Coke] Burleson, Alberta Hill, and F. Ragsdale, March 3, 1913. Library of Congress

1890

Herman Hollerith creates the census tabulator

The US Constitution declares that a census of all persons shall be taken every 10 years. In the American model, these results are used for a basic population count and to determine how many seats in the House of Representatives will be allotted per congressional district. In 1890, manual methods were creating a serious bottleneck so American inventor Herman Hollerith created a machine automating the process by using punched cards. With Hollerith’s machine, a quick count of the population was available in six weeks.

Image: Herman Hollerith with his census tabulating machine, 1890. Library of Congress

1860

US President Abraham Lincoln learns of his election victory via telegraph

The telegraph was a new communications technology invented two decades earlier. Lincoln used the new medium to great effect, telegraphing his generals to motivate them in battle and to propel his leadership vision to the front. The telegraph also opened people’s horizons, bringing international news to everyone’s local paper, the telegraph’s “killer app.”

Image: Abraham Lincoln, May 16, 1861. Library of Congress

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